Evangelia (Lilian) Tsourdi, ‘Guidelines on the transposition of the Asylum Qualification Directive: protecting LGBTI asylum seekers’, ILGA Europe, 2012 Abstract In 2004, the European Union adopted a Directive setting out rules governing minimum standards on conditions under which refugee status is granted as part of the Common European Asylum System (CEAS).1 It applies to third … Read more

Michael Kalkmann, ‘Questionnaire European Research Project, Fleeing Homophobia, Seeking Safety in Europe, Best practices on the (legal) position of LGBT Asylum Seekers in the EU Members States’, 2010

International Commission of Jurists, X, Y and Z: a glass half full for “rainbow refugees”?, 2014

ECRE, ‘Preliminary Deference? The impact of judgments of the Court of Justice of the EU in cases X.Y.Z., A.B.C. and Cimade and Gisti on national law and the use of the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights’, March 2017

UNHCR, Guidelines on international protection: Gender-related persecution within the context of Article 1A(2) of the 1951 Convention and/or its 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees (HCR/GIP/02/01, 2002).

European Council on Refugees and Exiles, Asylum Information Database (2020) National Country Report: The United Kingdom, 2019 update The Asylum Information Database (AIDA) is coordinated by the European Council on Refugees and Exiles (ECRE). It aims to provide up-to date information on asylum practice in 23 countries. The preparation of the first report and subsequent … Read more

Eva Küblbeck, Legal Study on Homophobia and Discrimination on Grounds of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity, Germany Update, January 2014, FRA European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA)

Michael Kalkmann, ‘Das Projekt “Fleeing Homophobia”’, Asylmagazin, November 2011

Sabine Jansen und Thomas Spijkerboer, ‘Fleeing Homophobia: Asylanträge mit Bezug zur sexuellen Orientierung und Geschlechtsidentität in Europe’ [deutsche Übersetzung], September 2011, COC Niederlande/ Freie Universität Amsterdam